Aquarium Pharmaceuticals API Freshwater Liquid Master Test Kit
A complete test kit for testing tap and aquarium water. Tests six different potentially dangerous water conditions. Includes Freshwater pH, High Range pH, Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate. Kit features computer-analyzed laminated color cards, instruction booklet, 4 test tubes, a holding tray and test tube rack.
Freshwater pH Test Instructions:
Why Test pH?
pH is the measure of acidity of water. A pH reading of 7.0 is neutral. A pH higher than 7.0 is alkaline, and a pH lower than 7.0 is acidic. Certain freshwater fish thrive at a pH above 7.0. Live-bearers and goldfish require a pH of 7.5. African cichlids, marine fish and invertebrates require a pH between 8.2 and 8.4. Maintaining the aquarium at the proper pH ensures optimal water quality.
Why test for Ammonia?
Tropical fish continually release ammonia (NH3) directly into the aquarium through their gills, urine, and solid waste. Uneaten food and other decaying organic matter also add ammonia to the water. A natural mechanism exists that controls ammonia in the aquarium – the biological filter. It is made up of nitrifying bacteria, which live in the gravel bed. However, as with any natural process, imbalances can occur. Testing for the presence of toxic ammonia is essential, so that once detected, steps can be taken to remove it. Otherwise, ammonia in the aquarium will damage gill membranes, and prevent fish from carrying on normal respiration. High levels of ammonia quickly lead to fish death. Even trace amounts stress fish, suppressing their immune system and thereby increasing the likelihood of disease outbreaks and subsequent fish loss.
Why Test For Nitrite?
Nitrite (NO2-) is produced in the aquarium by the biological filter. Beneficial bacteria in the biological filter convert toxic ammonia into nitrite (also toxic). The biological filter then converts nitrite into nitrate (NO3-). Testing for the presence of toxic nitrite is essential, so that once detected, steps can be taken to remove it. Otherwise, nitrite in the aquarium will prevent fish from carrying on normal respiration. High levels of nitrite quickly lead to fish death. Even trace amounts of nitrite stress fish, suppressing their immune system and, thereby, increase the likelihood of disease and subsequent fish loss.
What is Carbonate Hardness (KH)?
Carbonate hardness (also known as alkalinity) is the measure of carbonate (CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ion concentrations dissolved in water. These minerals are present in municipal, well, and bottled spring water. The level of carbonate hardness in tap and bottled water depends on the source of the water and the treatment processes it has undergone. Carbonate hardness helps stabilize pH in the aquarium. An aquarium with a low KH level (50 ppm or less) will tend to be acidic. Aquariums with very low KH are subject to rapid pH shifts, if not monitored carefully. Water with a high KH level (= 200 ppm) usually has a high pH. The Aquarium Pharmaceuticals KH (Carbonate Hardness) Test measures KH in German degrees (°dKH). To convert °dKH to parts per million (ppm), multiply °dKH x 17.9.
What is General Hardness (GH)?
General hardness is the measure of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ion concentrations dissolved in water. These minerals are present in municipal, well, and bottled spring water. The level of general hardness in tap and bottled water depends on the source of the water and the treatment processes it has undergone. Hard water (= 200 ppm) is high in calcium and magnesium, while soft water (50 to 100 ppm) is low in these minerals. The Aquarium Pharmaceuticals GH (General Hardness) Test measures GH in German degrees (°dGH). To convert °dGH to parts per million (ppm), multiply °dGH x 17.9.
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